Coconuts are an almost perfect food: highly nutritious and rich in fiber, vitamins C, E, B1, B3, B5 and B6 and minerals including iron, selenium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. Unlike cow’s milk, coconut milk is lactose free so can be used as a milk substitute by those with lactose intolerance as well as vegans says, https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/ingredient-focus-coconut-milk
Given proper care and growing conditions coconuts palms grow rapidly, can produce up to 100 coconuts a year, and live to be 100 years old! So if you are lucky enough to have access to coconuts – and they are grown in more than 90 countries around the world, one delicious way to use them is to make your own coconut milk.
In the May/June 2017 issue of Maui Nō Ka ‘Oi magazine, “Cuckoo for Coconuts,” Ryan Burden shares his knowledge and passion for coconuts, including this recipe for coconut milk:
How to make homemade Coconut Milk:
- One older, shaker coconut [almost fully mature, these coconuts have thick meat and are rich in coconut oil].
- 1 or 2 rubber or spoonmeat coconuts [younger coconuts with jelly consistency meat]
Split the coconut in half by tapping firmly around the circumference. Tip: You can use any hard surface, like the back of a machete, a cleaver, even a stone.
Scrape out the meat using a coconut tool or butter knife; cut into 2-inch pieces.
Fill a high-powered blender halfway with coconut pieces and top with water. Water from a sweet coconut is best, but you can use plain H20. If you do, add a teaspoon of honey and a pinch of salt.
Tip: Make sure the water is at least 73 degrees; otherwise, the oils won’t emerge.
Blend on high for 30 to 45 seconds. Tip: Coconut meat is tough. Gradually increasing the speed avoids overheating the blender.
Strain through a nutmilk bag or fine cheesecloth. Squeeze out every bit, and put into a jar.
Fill to the very top, leaving no air in the jar to spoil the water. Chill immediately.
After the jar is opened, milk will keep for up to a week in the refrigerator, but is best enjoyed within two days.
For the complete article including how to open a coconut, go to <https://mauimagazine.net/coconuts/
Have fun making – and drinking your homemade coconut milk.
Pistachio-Crusted Asparagus with Feta Vinaigrette
Recipe from Handmade Gatherings: Recipes & Crafts for Seasonal Celebrations & Potluck Parties (Roost Books).
Every spring, Ashley English, author and homesteader, uses asparagus fresh from her garden in Chandler, North Carolina. She says, “When I notice that those first, tender, thin green spears have poked their sleepy heads from the soil, that’s my cue that spring has arrived.” Here’s her favorite asparagus recipe.
Yield: 4-6 servings
2 pounds large asparagus
¼ cup olive oil
1 cup shelled pistachios
1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons feta, crumbled (Look below for a vegan “feta” that is tasty – and 100% dairy free)
1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
¼ cup olive oil
¼ cup feta, crumbled
2 teaspoons lemon juice
2 teaspoons red wine vinegar
1 tablespoon honey
Several grinds of black pepper
Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Rinse the asparagus, and cut about an inch off the stem ends. Pat to dry. Place the asparagus on a dry baking sheet, and cook it for three minutes to dry off any excess moisture. Remove the sheet from the oven and toss the asparagus on the sheet with the olive oil.
Crush the pistachios in a food processor (or under a towel with a kitchen mallet or hammer) for about 1 minute, until finely ground. Transfer the ground nuts to a small mixing bowl. Using a spoon or clean hands, mix the nuts with the salt. Lay the asparagus out evenly across the baking sheet. Sprinkle them with half of the ground pistachio and salt blend. Turn the spears over, then evenly sprinkle them with rest of the ground pistachios.
Cook 10 minutes, then remove from the oven, and carefully plate the spears onto a platter using tongs. Add all of the vinaigrette ingredients to a lidded container or a food processor. Shake or blend until smooth. Drizzle the plated asparagus with the vinaigrette. Top with the chopped parsley and feta. Serve at room temperature.
Seen in Spring 2017 edible ASHEVILLE, p. 42.
** For vegan feta, see this recipe from Nikki at EatingVibrantly.com for instant raw vegan feta: https://www.eatingvibrantly.com/instant-raw-vegan-feta-cheese/
Enjoy. Happy Spring, Renée
“All systems of oppression need to be challenged,” said a speaker at the Bali Vegan Festival in Ubud, Bali last month. Doing just that since 1977, Sea Shepherd, a non-governmental, non-profit environmental organization, has been using direct action tactics [along with lots of media attention] to protect marine life [and to educate consumers].
If you want to volunteer on a Sea Shepherd crew, you will be asked that question, “Are you willing to die for a whale?” The boats carry no guns but use film and public education to achieve incredible change. Their important work continues.
Sea Shepherd claims responsibility for damaging or sinking multiple whaling ships, through sabotage or ramming. The group has attempted to intervene against Russian, Spanish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Makah, Faroese, and Japanese whalers in multiple campaigns around the globe. Those actions have included scuttling and disabling commercial whaling vessels at harbor, using limpet mines (a type of naval mine attached to a target by magnets) to blow holes in ship hulls, ramming other vessels, throwing glass bottles of butyric acid (stinky rancid butter) on the decks of vessels at sea, boarding of whaling vessels while at sea, and seizing and destroying drift nets at sea. Sea Shepherd Captain Paul Watson has said that the organization has destroyed millions of dollars worth of equipment. The Sea Shepherd media extravaganzas have highlighted whaling, long-line fishing nets, and shark fining to get people everywhere informed and conscious of the destruction of life in our oceans.
Some shark populations have decreased by 60-70% due to shark fisheries.
Gary Stokes, Asia Director for Sea Shepherd, has spent the past 10 years on documenting, investigating, and exposing the shark fin trade. He was a guest speaker at the Bali Vegan Festival in Ubud last month. Indonesia is the #1 exporter of shark fins; Spain #2.
There is much economic pressure to ignore the international bans on shark finning.
Fishermen often choose to keep just the shark fins—only one to five percent of a shark’s weight—and throw the rest of the shark away rather than have the less valuable parts take up space on the boat. The finned sharks are often thrown back alive into the ocean, where unable to swim properly and bleeding profusely, they suffocate or die of blood loss. Shark meat sold to restaurants and markets is often used in seafood curries and stews.
Gary says that now 60% of the fish and seafood in our oceans are in terrible condition. Global fishing fleets are now at 2.5 times the sustainable level. Just one poaching boat, the “Lafayette” which works the waters off Chili and Peru around the Faroe Islands processes 1,500 tons of fish a day!! Much of that is Chilean tooth fish; in restaurants, it’s called “Chilean Sea Bass.” 😦 Much of caught sea food goes to animal feed.
A result of Sea Shepherd and other activists groups like Greenpeace and loud voices, many people now know to make conscious choices.
According to a National Geographic article, we now know to “look for the blue eco-label of the Marine Stewardship Council, or ask where in the world the fish comes from. . .[to] help you find the best and avoid the rest”
Stokes reports that forty percent of the tuna that comes into the U.S. is from illegal, unreported fisheries in Thailand. And forty percent of all fish caught is used for animal feed. 😦 If the world continues to consume and destroy marine life at the current rates, Stokes says that by 1948 there will be no fish!
Recently, Sea Shepherd Asia had a hiatus, a year off, when Japan temporarily halted whale hunting. Gary and his team got to go after other notorious pirate fishing vessels. For 110 days, a Sea Shepherd ship chased the “Thunder” – #1 on the Interpol list of pirate fishing vessels. Finally, the captain of the “Thunder” sunk his own ship rather than be caught with the incriminating evidence of illegal fishing!! But while part of the Sea Shepherd crew was saving the “Thunder” crew, other Sea Shepherd volunteers entered the sinking ship in time to collect computers and other evidence that has the captain and crew serving time in a Nigerian jail. [It would seem the owners of the pirate ships should be in jail too]. The photo above shows what has happened to other illegal fishing boats that Sea Shepherd has targeted.
Gary says of the ocean marine life, “We are losing everything.” We must all learn and act.
So why was Gary invited to speak at the Vegan Fest? The people who volunteer for the Sea Shepherd crews are ardent animal activists. Many are vegans. Since 2002, all Sea Shepherd vessels serve only vegan meals. It would be hypocritical, says Gary, to eat meat while chasing people who are killing marine life. Gary has been a vegetarian since 1980. When he first started going out on Sea Shepherd missions, Gary was more worried about what he would get to eat than about the possible confrontations the crew would meet. But, he has learned that the vegan meals are delicious, healthy, and accommodate everyone on board, and all religions.
The Sea Shepherd logo – a pirate to protect marine life:
Watch the following documentaries; you will likely cry, cheer, and laugh.
Paul Watson: The Whale Warrior: A Pirate for the Sea
Confessions of an Eco-Terrorist – a full documentary film
Seafood Watch has a free app for iPhone and Android that’s updated as recommendations change.
Please be ocean-friendly when you shop for seafood. Even better, eat vegetarian/vegan. Think about it. And tell your friends. Do what you can do.
Remember that ardent animal rights Sea Shepherd crews don’t have guns. Gary Stokes says that even one pissed off vegan is a force to be reckoned with.
Full steam ahead, Sea Shepherd. We need you now more than ever.
This recipe from Ayu Spicy is loaded with protein and keeps for several days refrigerated – where it just gets better.
Mango & Chickpea Tabouli – Serves 4-6
- 1/4 cup fresh orange juice
- 2 limes, juiced
- 1 1/2 Tbl. Indian curry powder, toasted in a dry frying pan
- 2/3 cup yogurt (for vegans – substitute soy yogurt or coconut yogurt. See https://reneeriley.wordpress.com/?s=coconut+yogurt)
- 1 tsp. orange zest, grated – just the orange part not the white pith
- 1 cup cooked rice or quinoa
- 1 can (439 g, about 16 oz) garbanzo beans (chickpeas), drained
- 1/4 cup raisins
- 1 ripe mango cut into 1 1/2 cm x 1 1/2 cm pieces (under 2 inch cubes)
- 2 Tbl. coriander leaf, chopped
- 1/4 cup toasted slivered almonds
In a medium sized bowl mix the orange and lime juices, the curry powder, yogurt, and the orange zest. When this is well mixed add the cooked rice or quinoa and stir again.
Now add the garbanzo beans and raisins, mixing well. Finally add the mango pieces and the chopped coriander leaf and mix gently.
Set the tabouli aside, covered, for at least an hour for the flavors to mix and mature. When you are ready to eat, turn it onto a serving dish and garnish with the toasted almonds.
This tabouli keeps well in the fridge. If you plan to have leftovers, don’t sprinkle all the almonds on at once but save some for when it comes ot of the fridge an sprinkle on just before serving.
Enjoy your meal!
“Salamat makan,” Renée
from: “Food Glorious Food” Bali Advertiser, 12-26 Oct. 2016, 45)
Especially when traveling, you see how other people do things differently. One wonderful aspect of Bali is there are no homeless people. I know that is a sweeping generalization, but I haven’t seen one person sleeping on the street! I wish I could say the same for Maui, the U.S., many other places in the world. Everyone has a home here mainly because they live in family compounds and take care of each other. Much of Bali land is government owned or controlled by the villages, so those who live in a family compound can’t sell the land. Even when they were colonized by the Dutch for 350 years, the Balinese kept control of their land, so they had their family home and family fields for shelter and food – for everyone.
In about 1930, Balinese began importing tin roofs (instead of using the grasses and having their neighbors help them thatch it – thus creating roof that would last 15-20 years – for free). Then they started importing cars – and needing money. Until that time, Bali could be considered one of the richest places on Earth. Because this traditional society was controlled by the village and temple laws, there was not much difference between the richest and poorest people in a village. Everyone got water for their family fields (a real “trickle-down” theory in practice). The system was so efficient that most people needed to work only four months a year to sustain themselves and their families; the rest of the year was dedicated to their art, temple, and family!
How’s that for a terrific idea that we could use?
(Source Hickman Powell’s The Last Paradise: An American’s Discovery of Bali in the 1920’s). <https://www.amazon.com/LAST-PARADISE-AMERICANS-DISCOVERY-1920s/dp/B01LMJYTBI/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1476854387&sr=1-1&keywords=The+Last+Paradise%3A+An+American%27s+Discovery+of+Bali+in+the+1920%27s&refinements=p_72%3A1250224011>
Even now that they have to work year round, most Balinese are artists: dancers, musicians, painters, carvers, mask makers, weavers . . . . We could learn much from the Balinese.
But since an outsider can often see what a local does not, I’ve noticed since I was last here in 2014, the trend in Bali to keep caged birds. Bali is tropical; birds are everywhere. Just look out your window. Farmers in the rice fields are chasing birds away from the ripe grain. If you want more birds, you can just put out some bird seed. On Jalan Bisma, sometimes a van of tourists come to bird watch.
Why would you cage them?
While I’ve been here in Bali, I’ve read that although Balinese don’t eat dog meat, other people do. “Dog theft here is rampant, be it by agents of the dreaded . . . dog meat restaurants, or by thieves looking to sell a breed dog . . . at the famous ‘pasar burung’ in Denpasar where many breed dogs are sold on. . . In desperation to retrieve their beloved stolen pet, owners offer a considerable financial reward on posters and flyers which sadly can encourage further theft (though the owner is left no choice really but to go down this route). Even if dog meat thieves are caught, they are seldom punished with any severity – and as long as they keep getting away with it, they will keep doing it ” (Pet Care” Bali Advertiser, 12-26 Oct. 2016 p. 50).
Also while I’ve been here, I’ve seen the New York Times, “Big Food Photo Essay”:
Newborn females arrive from local dairies and spend their first 180 days at Calf Source — first in one of 4,896 hutches, like the ones seen here, and then in larger group pens. Trucks pass down each of 72 rows, dispensing water and milk. After a transfer to Heifer Source, another facility owned by the Milk Source company, the cows are inseminated and then returned — seven months pregnant, and just under 2 years old — to the dairies they came from.
During its busiest season, Gary’s Gobblers might have up to 60,000 turkeys living on five acres of its 160-acre facility. The worker seen here is spraying an antibacterial solution into the turkey pens to prevent disease.
Calf and turkey photos and text from: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/10/09/magazine/big-food-photo-essay.html?smid=fb-share&_r=0
During the Bali Vegan Festival, I attended the talk, “The Plight of the Bali Dog.” The facts about the dogs were bad – but also hopeful with information about what organizations such as BARC are doing to meet the challenges. What surprised me the most was what a young woman from India attending the talk said in response to my question about the Balinese Hindus offering animal sacrifices to their gods.
I know India is a complex country, the world’s most populous democracy, the land of Gandhi, and ahimsa (seeing the spark of the divine within each person). India is a country where you are confronted with big questions about glittering wealth and abject poverty – and where the Hindu majority religion respects the lives of animals. Indians make up two thirds of the world’s population of vegetarians – and Indian food is healthy and delicious.
What the Indian woman told me was very surprising to me:
1) Today – vegetarian, respect for animal life – India is one of the biggest exporter of beef cattle in the world!!! According to a 2015 CNN news report, “India was the world’s top beef exporter last year. That’s because India exports large quantities of meat from water buffalo — a member of the bovine family classified as beef by the USDA. . . . Meat now earns India more export dollars than basmati rice. . .
India’s buffalo meat — a chewier and cheaper alternative to beef — mostly ends up on plates in Asia and the Middle East, where rising wealth is spurring demand among diners for animal protein. . . .
The cow is revered in Hindu culture, the religion observed by roughly 80% of India’s 1.3 billion people, and restrictions on cattle slaughter apply in most states. . .
Still, the $4.8 billion annual export trade has almost developed by accident — the animals are needed to keep India’s huge domestic dairy industry going, said Rabobank analyst Pawan Kumar.
This is unique among countries with large bovine exports, Kumar said. It also means buffalo meat from India is cheaper. That helped the country generate record export earnings from the beef last year, although growth is moderating from the 30% annual rate seen between 2010 to 2013.
Here’s where it all goes: Vietnam is the top importer, with Malaysia, Egypt and Saudi Arabia other key markets.
Then there’s China, which may actually be the largest consumer of the meat, according to Rabobank’s Kumar. Some 40% of Indian buffalo is sent to Vietnam, before large quantities make their way across the Chinese border.
The Indian woman told me a second fact shocked me even more than the first:
2) Some Hindus offer animal sacrifice to their gods – as a gift of the best food.
According to the November 2014 Daily Mail article, “Animals are being lined up for slaughter as Nepal embarks on a two-day religious festival where buffalo, birds and goats are sacrificed to appease a Hindu goddess.
Millions of Hindus flock to the ceremony, which is held every five years at the temple of Gadhimai, the goddess of power, in Bariyarpur, Nepal, near the Indian border. . .
In 2009, more than 250,000 animals were killed, according to animal rights organization PETA, who is campaigning to put a stop to the practice.”
You can read more, but warning – the source includes gruesome photos : http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2852739/Nepal-devotees-sacrifice-thousands-animals-Hindu-ritual.html#ixzz4NK8sQSJs
As a great appetizer or a vegetarian main dish, these patties are high in protein – and tasty. Plus you can vary the taste by your choice of mushroom. And you can choose just to make the mushroom sauce and lemon aïoli if you have prepared veggie patties.
Makes: 30 small patties or 8 big ones.
- 1 recipe of Tempe Potato Patties uncooked (http://baliadvertiser.biz/potato/) – see below or buy prepared tempeh patties from you local health food market
- 1/2 cup chopped fresh dill
Ingredients for the mushroom filling:
- 1 Tbl. olive oil
- 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
- 4 shallots, thinly sliced
- 100 g. (3/4 cup) fresh shitake mushrooms, cleaned and chopped
- 200 g ( 1 1/2 cups)fresh portobello mushrooms, cleaned and chopped
- 1 Tbl. crumbled dried thyme leaves
- 1 tsp. lemon juice
- salt and pepper – to taste
Ingredients for the Lemon Aïoli
- 4 hard-cooked egg yolks, save the whites for another use
- 3 Tbl lemon or lime juice
- 1/4 tsp. sugar
- 1/4 tsp. freshly ground pepper
- 1/2 tsp. sea salt
- 2 pinches of ground cayenne
- 2 tsp. Dijon mustard
- 1 tsp. lemon zest, finely grated
- 1 small clove of garlic, pressed
- 5 Tbl. extra virgin olive oil
Make the recipe for Tempe Potato Patties up to the point where you form the patties or – as I would do – open up your Life Foods veggie patties.
If you love cooking, you can make your own patties:
Tempe Potato Patties from http://baliadvertiser.biz/potato/
Ingredients for Potatoes :
– 350 gr. (about 1.4 cups or 12.34 ounces) potatoes
– ½ tsp. salt
– ¼ tsp. cumin powder
– ¼ tsp. coriander powder
– 1/8 tsp. cayenne or red chili powder
– 1 clove garlic, pressed
– 2 Tbl. celery leaves finely chopped
– pepper to taste
Ingredients for Tempe :
– 100 gr. (3/4 cup or 3.53 ounces) tempe
– 1/8 tsp. salt
– 1/8 tsp. cumin powder
– 1/8 tsp. coriander powder
– cayenne or red chili powder to taste
– pepper to taste
– 1 egg beaten in a small bowl
– ¾ cup bread crumbs on a small plate
– Canola oil for frying
Boil the potatoes in their skins until soft. Set aside until cool enough to handle and then remove the skins. Mash the potatoes with a potato masher. Once they are evenly mashed add the salt, cumin, coriander, chili powder, celery leaves, and pepper. Mix well. Set this aside.
Boil the tempeh for about 10 minutes or until done. Mash the tempeh. Add the salt, cumin, coriander, chili powder, and pepper. When this is well mixed add the potato mixture and mix very well. Adjust the seasoning to taste. Make patties about 6 cm in diameter and 2 cm thick from this mixture. You should have about 8-9 patties.
Or – if you don’t have time or the passion for cooking, buy quality veggie patties such as those from Life Foods:
Whatever your choice, cook the patties:
Heat about 1 Tbl. canola oil in a non-stick frying pan big enough to hold all the patties in one layer. (You can also do this in two batches – it is important that they are in one layer.) While the oil heats, take a patty and dip it in the beaten egg and then in the bread crumbs, coating both sides of the patty. Do this with the remaining patties. Fry the patties until golden brown and then flip them over and brown the other side, adding oil as needed. These are most delicious when well browned and served warm.
Set this aside.
Make the mushroom filling by heating 1 Tbl. olive oil in a frying pan. When the oil is hot add the garlic and shallots, stir frying until the shallots are limp. Crumble in the dried thyme leaves, giving it a good stir and then add the shitake and Portobello mushrooms. Stir fry these over a high heat until they start to brown and release their juices. Season with lemon juice, salt and pepper and continue stir frying until most of the juice evaporates. Remove from the heat and set aside.
If you are making appetizers, take a spoonful of the Tempe Potato Patty dough and flatten into a 5 cm disk. Make another one the same size. Put 1 tsp.of the mushroom filling on a disk and top with a sprig of dill. Take another disk and lay on top of the mushroom filling, pushing down to flatten and pinching the sides closed. Continue like this until you have used all the tempe potato dough and the sautéed mushrooms. You should have about 30 small filled patties.
If you want to eat this as a vegetarian main course make the patties bigger and fill with a larger amount of sautéed mushrooms. You should have about 8 large filled patties.
Keep the patties warm in the oven until ready to serve.
As you are cooking the patties, make the lemon aïoli.
Put all the ingredients for the lemon aïoli, except the oil, in blender, food processor, stick blender container or a deep mortar with a pestle. Combine the ingredients until smooth. Slowly add the oil while continuing to mix. Taste and correct for salt, pepper and lemon juice.
You can either drizzle the sauce over the patties or serve it in a bowl for each diner to dip into.
Recipe by Ayu Spicy in “Food Glorious Food” from Bali Advertiser, 14-28 Sept. 2016, p. 44
Enjoy – and as they say in Bali, “Selamat makan,” Renée
Images from: <http://www.justpaleofood.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/garlic-roasted-sauteed-mushrooms.jpg>; <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-J3C2dwY3n0w/R5EQPDZomwI/AAAAAAAABeg/2t44EYXSWeg/s640/tempeh2.jpg>; <http://www.epicurus.com/food/recipes/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/AddHerbs.png>; <https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/m/boiled-potatoes-their-skins-raw-parsley-39400568.jpg>
One of the great things about being on vacation is catching up on reading – especially The New Yorker magazines that I never seem to finish. This article although from February 2014 is pertinent since atrazine is still being used in the U.S.
In The New Yorker, “A Valuable Reputation: After Tyrone Hayes said that a chemical was harmful, its maker pursued him” by Rachel Aviv reports on Hayes’ experiments with the herbicide atrazine, which is applied to more than half the corn in the United States. After his experiments indicated that the pesticide causes birth deformities (especially in males), Syngenta tried to discredit Hayes.
Below are excerpts from the article:
“Syngenta, which is based in Basel, sells more than fourteen billion dollars’ worth of seeds and pesticides a year and funds research at some four hundred academic institutions around the world. When Hayes agreed to do experiments for the company (which at that time was part of a larger corporation, Novartis), the students in his lab expressed concern that biotech companies were “buying up universities” and that industry funding would compromise the objectivity of their research. Hayes assured them that his fee, a hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, would make their lab more rigorous. He could employ more students, buy new equipment, and raise more frogs. Though his lab was well funded, federal support for research was growing increasingly unstable, and, like many academics and administrators, he felt that he should find new sources of revenue. “I went into it as if I were a painter, performing a service,” Hayes told me. “You commissioned it, and I come up with the results, and you do what you want with them. It’s your responsibility, not mine.
Syngenta Headquarters, Basel, Switzerland:
Atrazine is the second most widely used herbicide in the U.S., where sales are estimated at about three hundred million dollars a year. Introduced in 1958, it is cheap to produce and controls a broad range of weeds. (Glyphosate, which is produced by Monsanto, [- which we in Maui know about too much] is the most popular herbicide.) A study by the Environmental Protection Agency found that without atrazine the national corn yield would fall by six per cent, creating an annual loss of nearly two billion dollars. But the herbicide degrades slowly in soil and often washes into streams and lakes, where it doesn’t readily dissolve. Atrazine is one of the most common contaminants of drinking water; an estimated thirty million Americans are exposed to trace amounts of the chemical. . .[my emphasis].
The E.P.A. approved the continued use of atrazine in October , the same month that the European Commission chose to remove it from the market. [It’s been banned in Italy and Germany since 1991, according to http://www.toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Atrazine+Regulation+in+Europe+and+the+United+States].
The European Union generally takes a precautionary approach to environmental risks, choosing restraint in the face of uncertainty. In the U.S., lingering scientific questions justify delays in regulatory decisions. Since the mid-seventies, the E.P.A. has issued regulations restricting the use of only five industrial chemicals out of more than eighty thousand in the environment [my emphasis]. Industries have a greater role in the American regulatory process—they may sue regulators if there are errors in the scientific record—and cost-benefit analyses are integral to decisions: a monetary value is assigned to disease, impairments, and shortened lives and weighed against the benefits of keeping a chemical in use. Lisa Heinzerling, the senior climate-policy counsel at the E.P.A. in 2009 and the associate administrator of the office of policy in 2009 and 2010, said that cost-benefit models appear “objective and neutral, a way to free ourselves from the chaos of politics.” But the complex algorithms “quietly condone a tremendous amount of risk.” She added that the influence of the Office of Management and Budget, which oversees major regulatory decisions, has deepened in recent years. “A rule will go through years of scientific reviews and cost-benefit analyses, and then at the final stage it doesn’t pass,” she said. . .
To redirect attention to the financial benefits of atrazine, the company paid Don Coursey, a tenured economist at the Harris School of Public Policy, at the University of Chicago, five hundred dollars an hour to study how a ban on the herbicide would affect the economy. In 2006, Syngenta supplied Coursey with data and a “bundle of studies,” and edited his paper, which was labelled as a Harris School Working Paper. (He disclosed that Syngenta had funded it.) After submitting a draft, Coursey had been warned in an e-mail that he needed to work harder to articulate a “clear statement of your conclusions flowing from this analysis.” Coursey later announced his findings at a National Press Club event in Washington and told the audience that there was one “basic takeaway point: a ban on atrazine at the national level will have a devastating, devastating effect upon the U.S. corn economy.”. . .
Hayes was confident that at the next E.P.A. hearing there would be enough evidence to ban atrazine, but in 2010 the agency found that the studies indicating risk to humans were too limited. Two years later, during another review, the E.P.A. determined that atrazine does not affect the sexual development of frogs. By that point, there were seventy-five published studies on the subject, but the E.P.A. excluded the majority of them from consideration, because they did not meet the requirements for quality that the agency had set in 2003. The conclusion was based largely on a set of studies funded by Syngenta and led by Werner Kloas, a professor of endocrinology at Humboldt University, in Berlin. One of the co-authors was Alan Hosmer, a Syngenta scientist whose job, according to a 2004 performance evaluation, included “atrazine defence” and “influencing EPA.”
After the hearing, two of the independent experts who had served on the E.P.A.’s scientific advisory panel, along with fifteen other scientists, wrote a paper (not yet published) complaining that the agency had repeatedly ignored the panel’s recommendations and that it placed “human health and the environment at the mercy of industry.” “The EPA works with industry to set up the methodology for such studies with the outcome often that industry is the only institution that can afford to conduct the research,” they wrote. The Kloas study was the most comprehensive of its kind: its researchers had been scrutinized by an outside auditor, and their raw data turned over to the E.P.A. But the scientists wrote that one set of studies on a single species was “not a sufficient edifice on which to build a regulary assessment.” Citing a paper by Hayes, who had done an analysis of sixteen atrazine studies, they wrote that “the single best predictor of whether or not the herbicide atrazine had a significant effect in a study was the funding source.”
In another paper, in Policy Perspective, Jason Rohr, an ecologist at the University of South Florida, who served on an E.P.A. panel, criticized the “lucrative ‘science for hire’ industry, where scientists are employed to dispute data.” He wrote that a Syngenta-funded review of the atrazine literature had arguably misrepresented more than fifty studies and made a hundred and forty-four inaccurate or misleading statements, of which “96.5% appeared to be beneficial for Syngenta.” Rohr, who has conducted several experiments involving atrazine, said that, at conferences, “I regularly get peppered with questions from Syngenta cronies trying to discount my research. They try to poke holes in the research rather than appreciate the adverse effects of the chemicals.” He said, “I have colleagues whom I’ve tried to recruit, and they’ve told me that they’re not willing to delve into this sort of research, because they don’t want the headache of having to defend their credibility.” . . .
Syngenta denied repeated requests for interviews, but Ann Bryan, its senior manager for external communications, told me in an e-mail that some of the studies I was citing were unreliable or unsound. When I mentioned a recent paper in the American Journal of Medical Genetics, which showed associations between a mother’s exposure to atrazine and the likelihood that her son will have an abnormally small penis, undescended testes, or a deformity of the urethra—defects that have increased in the past several decades—she said that the study had been “reviewed by independent scientists, who found numerous flaws.” She recommended that I speak with the author of the review, David Schwartz, a neuroscientist, who works for Innovative Science Solutions, a consulting firm that specializes in “product defense” and strategies that “give you the power to put your best data forward.” Schwartz told me that epidemiological studies can’t eliminate confounding variables or make claims about causation. “We’ve been incredibly misled by this type of study,” he said.
In 2012, in its settlement of the class-action suits, Syngenta agreed to pay a hundred and five million dollars to reimburse more than a thousand water systems for the cost of filtering atrazine from drinking water, but the company denies all wrongdoing. Bryan told me that “atrazine does not and, in fact, cannot cause adverse health effects at any level that people would ever be exposed to in the real-world environment.” She wrote that she was “troubled by a suggestion that we have ever tried to discredit anyone. Our focus has always been on communicating the science and setting the record straight.” She noted that “virtually every well-known brand, or even well-known issue, has a communications program behind it. Atrazine’s no different.”
See the whole article at –
How does atrazine compare to glyphosate (Monsanto’s choice)?
Glyphosate (commonly sold as RoundUp) will kill everything. Atrazine will kill much of what it touches but in small amounts.
However, there is hope for the future.
In an update from Sustainable Pulse in a March 24, 2016 article:
“The Environmental Protection Agency will analyze the impacts of atrazine and glyphosate — the two most commonly used pesticides in the United States — on 1,500 endangered plants and animals in the United States under the terms of a settlement reached today with the Center for Biological Diversity. The EPA will also analyze the impacts of propazine and simazine, two pesticides that are chemically similar to atrazine. It has committed to completing the assessments by June 2020” – from http://sustainablepulse.com/2015/06/28/epa-forced-to-study-impact-of-atrazine-and-glyphosate-on-us-endangered-species/#.VvRLnVKerBU
Although the EPA assessment results are years away, we are becoming more aware of the dangers of atrazine and other pesticides thanks to Tyrone Haynes and other scientists who have spoken out for years about the results of their experiments.
Learn about the food you buy for your family. Let’s make good choices.
Barry and I were in Ubud again – because we love it there.
One of the great pleasures of being in Bali is the fresh coconuts – everywhere! For a little more than $1.00 U.S., you can enjoy this mineral-rich, hydrating treat.
Art is everywhere in Bali. Some of the streets in Ubud have patterned pavement.
Walking down an Ubud street, you will have visual treats everywhere you look.
Eating is a treat in Ubud.
Food choices – from street cart venders to top five-star chefs – are part of the Ubud scene. We often just stopped in at Umah Pizza for a huge green salad – and yes, pizza; it was down the street from our home stay.
Usually we make friends as we hang out at Nick’s pool. This year, two Mainland friends came to visit us: Gail from near Seattle and Chris from Chicago.
Enticing walks lured us through the rice fields and all around Ubud.
A big hotel is in the background, and tourists throng through the Ubud Palace, but you don’t have to go far to be away from the crowds.
Flowers are spectacular.
We love the Balinese.
Spas are abundant in Ubud and nearby.
Everything has a reason in Balinese homes. The guards at the gates symbolize the positive and negative aspects of everything. In order for the head of the household to make wise decisions, the guards share both perspectives.
For the first time, we saw a cremation, an important rite of passage for the Balinese Hindus who believe in reincarnation.
We went out almost every night for dinner, music, shows . . . Ubud has a range of entertainments within walking distance of our great home stay, Vera Accommodation <http://www.balicheapaccommodation.com/en/Cheap-accommodations/Indonesia/Ubud-Bali/Studio/Vera-Accommodation/1542>.
When we were there, for the Sunday fundraising buffet, Villa Kitty had 140 rescue cats of all ages and conditions and about 20 dogs. Elizabeth and her staff do wonderful work of rescuing animals as well as educating Bali residents.
We enjoy being in Bali – especially in Ubud, a town rich in Balinese culture and religion. I also love all the yoga from very well-trained teachers offered in Ubud. My choice is The Yoga Barn almost every day! http://www.theyogabarn.com 🙂 . The Balinese and the visitors we meet there are wonderful, interesting people. Barry and I are sure to return.
Aloha & Sanpai jumpa, Renée
“Cashew cream cheese is rich, slightly tangy, and incredibly satisfying,” notes Chef Simon.
Cashew and Coconut Cream Cheese (gluten free, dairy free, & vegan)
– 2 cups ( .47 L) of cashew nuts. Soaked in ample water for 12 hours. Drained and rinsed.
– 2 cups ( .47 L) of coconut milk
– 1 teaspoon (4.47 grams) of soy sauce
– 1 teaspoon (4.47 grams) of sea salt
– 1 teaspoon (4.47 grams) of agar agar (a seaweed based thickener, available at Asian grocery stores). You can play around with this quantity. The more you use, the firmer your cheese will be.
In a blender, combine cashews, oil, 1 cup of the coconut milk, (if you have coconut yogurt, you can use 1 cup of this instead to result in a more tangy cream cheese), plus the soy sauce and salt. Blend at high speed until very smooth.
In a saucepan, combine the other cup of coconut milk and agar agar, bring to a boil while stirring. Boil for 2 minutes.
With the blender running, introduce the boiled milk/agar mixture to the rest of the ingredients. Do this while the mixture is still hot and runny. When completely combined, pour into a container and allow to set in the fridge for several hours.
Chef Simon says that recipes such as this one aren’t replacements for cow’s milk. Instead, they are worthy for the most discerning foodies out there, vegan or not. “If their creaminess, tanginess, and plain satisfaction factor remind you of dairy, well, lucky you” (UbudLife Vol. 21, Dec.-Feb. 2015, p. 43).
Aloha & Sanpai jumpa, Renée