“Worlds Apart” by T.M. Luhrmannn

“‘Progress is impossible without change,’ George Bernard Shaw wrote in 1944, ‘and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.’ But progress through persuasion has never seemed harder to achieve.  Political segregation has made many Americans inaccessible, even unimaginable, to those on the other side of the partisan divide.  On the rare occasions when we do come face-to-face, it is not clear what we could say to change each other’s minds or reach a worthwhile compromise.  Psychological research has shown that humans often fail to process facts that conflict with our preexisting worldviews.  The stakes are simply too high: our self-worth and identity are entangled with our beliefs—and with those who share them.  The weakness of logic as a tool of persuasion, combined with the urgency of the political moment, can be paralyzing.
Yet we know that people do change their minds.  We are constantly molded by our environment and our culture, by the events of the world, by the gossip we hear and the books we read. . . .” (Forum, February 2018, 27-29).  This Harper’s Magazine issue focuses on persuasion; it features seven writers, each with a different perspective.  The first essay follows.

The Minds of Others

The art of persuasion in the age of Trump

Worlds Apart

By T. M. Luhrmann

In March 1997, the bodies of thirty-nine people were discovered in a mansion outside San Diego. They were found lying in bunk beds, wearing identical black shirts and sweatpants. Their faces were covered with squares of purple cloth, and each of their pockets held exactly five dollars and seventy-five cents.

The police determined that the deceased were members of Heaven’s Gate, a local cult, and that they had intentionally overdosed on barbiturates. Marshall Applewhite, the group’s leader, had believed that there was a UFO trailing in the wake of Comet Hale-Bopp, which was visible in the sky over California that year. He and his followers took the pills, mixing them with applesauce and washing them down with vodka, in order to beam up to the spacecraft and enter the “evolutionary level above human.”

In the aftermath of the mass suicide, one question was asked again and again: How could so many people have believed something so obviously wrong? [my emphasis]

I am an anthropologist of religion. I did my first stint of fieldwork with middle-class Londoners who identified as witches, druids, and initiates of the Western Mysteries. My next project was in Mumbai, India, where Zoroastrianism was experiencing a resurgence. Later, I spent four years with charismatic evangelical Christians in Chicago and San Francisco, observing how they developed an “intimate relationship” with an invisible God. Along the way, I studied newly Orthodox Jews, social-justice Catholics, Anglo-Cuban Santeria devotees, and, briefly, a group in southern California that worshipped a US-born guru named Kalindi.

Most of these people would describe themselves as believers. Many of the evangelicals would say that they believe in God without doubt. But even the most devout do not behave as if God’s reality is the same as the obdurate thereness of rocks and trees. They will tell you that God is capable of anything, aware of everything, and always on their side. But no one prays that God will write their term paper or replace a leaky pipe.

Instead, what their actions suggest is that maintaining a sense of God’s realness is hard. Evangelicals talk constantly about what bad Christians they are. They say that they go to church and resolve to be Christlike and then yell at their kids on the way home. The Bible may assert vigorously the reality of a mighty God, but psalm after psalm laments his absence. “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”

Beliefs are not passively held; they are actively constructed. Even when people believe in God, he must be made real for them again and again. They must be convinced that there is an invisible other who cares for them and whose actions affect their lives.

This is more likely to happen for someone who can vividly imagine that invisible other. In the late 1970s, Robert Silvey, an audience researcher at the BBC, started using the word “paracosm” to describe the private worlds that children create, like the North Pacific island of Gondal that Emily and Anne Brontë dreamed up when they were girls. But paracosms are not unique to children. Besotted J.R.R. Tolkien fans, for example, have a similar relationship with Middle-earth. What defines a paracosm is its specificity of detail: it is the smell of the rabbit cooked in the shadow of the dark tower or the unease the hobbits feel on the high platforms at Lothlórien. In returning again and again to the books, a reader creates a history with this enchanted world that can become as layered as her memory of middle school.

God becomes more real for people who turn their faith into a paracosm. The institution provides the stories — the wounds of Christ on the cross, the serpent in the Garden of Eden — and some followers begin to live within them. These narratives can grip the imagination so fiercely that the world just seems less good without them.

During my fieldwork, I saw that people could train themselves to feel God’s presence. They anchored God to their minds and bodies so that everyday experiences became evidence of his realness. They got goose bumps in the presence of the Holy Spirit, or sensed Demeter when a chill ran up their spine. When an idea popped into their minds, it was God speaking, not a stray thought of their own. Some people told me that they came to recognize God’s voice the way they recognized their mother’s voice on the phone. As God became more responsive, the biblical narratives seemed less like fairy tales and more like stories they’d heard from a friend, or even memories of their own.

Faith is the process of creating an inner world and making it real through constant effort. But most believers are able to hold the faith world — the world as it should be — in tension with the world as it is. When the engine fails, Christians might pray to God for a miracle, but most also call a mechanic.

Being socially isolated can compromise one’s ability to distinguish his or her paracosm from the everyday world. Members of Heaven’s Gate never left their houses alone. They wore uniforms and rejected signs of individuality. Some of them even underwent castration in order to avoid romantic attachments. When group members cannot interact with outsiders, they are less likely to think independently. Especially if there is an autocratic leader, there is less opportunity for dissent, and the group becomes dependent on his or her moral authority. Slowly, a view of the world that seems askew to others can settle into place.

When we argue about politics, we may think we are arguing over facts and propositions. But in many ways we argue because we live in different paracosmic worlds, facilitated these days by the intensely detailed imaginings of talk radio and cable news [my emphisis].  For some of us, that world is the desperate future of the near at hand. If abortion is made illegal, abortions will happen anyway, and women will die because they used clothes hangers to scrape out their insides. Others live in a paracosm of a distant future of the world as it should be, where affirmative action is unnecessary because people who work hard can succeed regardless of where they started.

Recently, the dominant political narratives in America have moved so far apart that each is unreadable to the other side. But we know that the first step in loosening the grip of an extreme culture is developing a relationship with someone who interprets the world differently [my emphasis].  In 2012, for example, a woman named Megan Phelps-Roper left the Westboro Baptist Church, a hard-line Christian group that pickets the funerals of queer people, after she became friendly with a few of her critics on Twitter. If the presence of people with whom we disagree helps us to maintain common sense, then perhaps the first step to easing the polarization that grips this country is to seek those people out[my emphasis].  That’s the anthropological way.”

 

If those Heaven’s Gate cult members had not been so isolated and had been able to talk with those outside their group,  perhaps they would have realized that killing themselves as a way to beam themselves up to a passing spacecraft was really not a rational idea.

Find someone you just can’t understand.  Talk and listen.  It’s likely to be good for both of you.

From: https://harpers.org/archive/2018/02/the-minds-of-others/2/

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About reneeriley

Our blog was begun as a way to share our experiences in China. From August 2010 to July 2011, my husband, Barry Kristel, and I were at our University of Hawaii Maui College sister school, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University in Lin'an, China, a city considered rural because it has only 500,000 people! We had a wonderful time. Then in February 2012, we returned to teach this time at our other sister school, Shanghai Normal University, in a city of over 21 million people. We've made many discoveries. Did you know that now Chinese girls, at least the ones who go to university, for the most part feel they are luckier than the Chinese boys? Did you know that Shanghai saved over 20,000 European Jews during WWII? Do you know how Chinese university students would deal with problems that come up in Dear Abby letters? What's it like to be on the Great Wall of China? Do you know how many Chinese girls had their feet bound and why? And we have recipes from many of the places we've visited. Among others, you can find instructions on how to fry cicadas from one of my ZAFU students and how to make chocolate-Kahlua waffles from my brother Mike in Gainesville. You can also look back to our earliest entry to see what we experienced in Oaxaca, Mexico, in 2006 during the mainly peaceful six months of protest until the Mexican government sent in the troops. Between our stays in China, Barry and I have been on the Mainland U.S. visiting family, friends and Servas hosts as we traveled home to Maui. We share those experiences too. Welcome to our blog! Aloha and Zài Jiàn, Renée and Barry

One response to ““Worlds Apart” by T.M. Luhrmannn”

  1. Rosita says :

    I must agree!! And that cult, omg.. so shocking… to do mass suicide? Our society is seriously fucked up!! psychiatric disorders are being banalized , yet they’re ridiculed and neglected when they’re present 💔 ppl is slowly losing their compassion and ability to understand, or, at least, hear each other’s issues… so sad. We must preserve unity in diversity as well as tolerance 🙌🏼 Also, about the comment u did on a former post, well, dengue isn’t the REAL breakbone fever, at least not in my opinion. True, dengue is very painful and makes one physically and emotionally drained, but it’s not as worst as that other virus I got, 5 yrs ago… chikungunya is waaaaay more painful than dengue… ‘cause with dengue I could still manage to draw one thing and another, while with chikungunya, I couldn’t bother even to write my name. Pain was unbearable, so, in my opinion, chikungunya is THE breakbone fever. By the way, urs NEED to get InstaGram so we could get more in touch as well as the fact I think u’d likes to appreciate some cute, meaningful art work of mine xx hope urs never get dengue nor chikungunya. Also, there’s another virus circulating in Brasil, the Mayaro one. While it has been present on my region for a great while, it’s still little-known and is causing outbreaks in Rio de Janeiro and other areas of southeastern Brasil. These virus would thrive there.. Dengue may cause hemorrhagy in severe cases (normally, if u get it for 2nd or 3rd time, it can already be hemorrhagic). Chikungunya causes excruciating joint pain. Zika is dangerous for pregnant women. With mayaro, well, it’s still been researched by doctors. So, better safe then sorry!! 🤗 don’t forget mosquito repellent. Also, do urs have any terrific snack recipes this time? I miss them

    Hope urs are fine,
    R/sooi_dog

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